MUJULIMA is a collaborative research project with experts from nine European universities, companies and organisations. The project partners all have a strong background in the research and development of OPVs. These partners are:

Project coordinator

TNO/Holst Centre - The Netherlands

TNO/Holst Centre - The Netherlands

TNO (Nederlandse Organisatie voor Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek TNO) is one of the major contract research organisations in Europe. With a staff of approximately 3800 and an annual turnover of 580 million Euros, TNO is carrying out research in order to achieve impact on the following seven themes: Healthy Living, Industrial Innovation, Transport and Mobility, Energy, Built Environment, Information Society, and Defence, Safety and Security.

TNO functions as an intermediary between basic research organisations and industry. By translating scientific knowledge into practical applications, TNO contributes to the innovation capacity of businesses and government. TNO is involved in many international projects (about 30% of the market turnover), including EU-funded collaborations.

In the theme of Industrial Innovation applied research is carried out for a wide range of industrial branches. The expertise covers the whole process from basic (material) research, design and engineering to manufacturing and testing of products and systems. The focus is on innovation in the areas of high-tech systems and materials, maritime and offshore, and the sustainable chemical industry.

In the research groups of Holst Centre, the main activities are related to the development of large area flexible electronics. The laboratories of Holst Centre are situated on the High Tech Campus Eindhoven and strong relations exist with university research groups that are active in the same area.

TNO’s main contribution to MUJULIMA

TNO is project coordinator and leading WP1 and WP2. In addition, TNO will contribute to MUJULIMA with its expertise on large area printing and laser patterning. These are crucial in the completion of solar modules. Activities related to the development of the hardcoat on the barrier will also be performed by TNO.

Project Partners

IMEC - Interuniversitair Micro-Electronica Centrum vzw

IMEC - Interuniversitair Micro-Electronica Centrum vzw

IMEC performs world-leading research in nano-electronics. We leverage our scientific knowledge with the innovative power of our global partnerships in ICT, healthcare and energy. In a unique high-tech environment, our international top talent is committed to providing the building blocks for a better life in a sustainable society. Our goal: creating innovative solutions that are relevant for the industry. IMEC's research is 3 to 10 years ahead of the industry. We form a bridge between the fundamental research at universities and the technology development in the industry. IMEC has a unique expertise in chip processing and system design, a strong IP portfolio, an ultramodern infrastructure, and an extensive network of partners.

IMEC is headquartered in Leuven, Belgium. We have additional R&D teams in The Netherlands (Holst Centre in Eindhoven), China, Taiwan, and India, and offices in Japan and the USA. Our staff of close to 2,000 people includes more than 600 industrial residents and guest researchers. In 2011, IMEC's revenue (P&L) was 300 million euro.

IMEC’s Large Area Electronics (LAE) department consists of two groups, one dedicated to organic and oxide thin-film transistors (OTFT) and the other one to organic photovoltaics (OPV). IMEC’s OPV Group researches actively the two main classes of organic materials, solution processable polymers, as well as small-molecular weight materials. It has demonstrated solar cells with world-class efficiencies: ~9% for polymer-based single junction cells, and over 7% for evaporated small molecule-based multiple junction devices. The LAE Department uses IMEC's state-of-the-art semiconductor processing facilities and dedicated labs for fabrication and characterization of organic devices (400 m2). A recent extension of the available OPV lab space has allowed to scale up the processing of devices to the size of 15x15 cm² and to introduce inline production techniques.

IMEC’s main contribution to MUJULIMA

IMEC is leading the WP4 on light management. Furthermore, IMEC will bring its expertise in device fabrication and characterization in the other WPs like WP3 on multiple junction developments and WP5 on lifetime testing.


ECN - Stichting Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland

The Energy research Centre of the Netherlands is one of the leading institutes in Europe concerning applied energy research. ECN's mission is to contribute to a future sustainable energy system by performing research and technology development and bringing it into implementation. ECN is experienced in the definition and execution of projects in the R&D area between universities and industries and is funded on a contract basis. Contracts are obtained from the Dutch government and from national and international organisations and industries. ECN has about 650 employees that work in the field of solar and wind energy, biomass conversion, clean use of fossil fuels, energy efficiency in industry and the built environment, policy studies and environmental aspects of energy supply.

In the ECN Solar Energy unit, approximately 90 scientists and engineers are involved in photovoltaics R&D. A full research programme is carried out on crystalline silicon wafers and ribbons, cells and modules and on thin film PV technology (Within the frame of Solliance), including thin-film silicon, and polymer solar cells. ECN Solar develops new concepts and processes for advanced solar cells and modules and applies these in their laboratory facilities. ECN plays internationally a prominent role in these fields which is expressed in their holdership of the world record efficiency for "industry-compatible" cells. ECN brings its experience in process development, characterization and module manufacturing of several kinds of solar cells as well as the accompanying laboratory and pilot production facilities and its expertise in implementation of research results into industrial production.

ECN’s main contribution to MUJULIMA:

The specific core strengths at ECN in the field of thin film photovoltaics in general and more specifically polymer based solar cells, which will be applied in the various WP’s for the MUJULIMA project, are:

  • Advanced light management: improved light incoupling by nanotexturization. ECN has developed processes (nanoimprint lithography) for fabrication of nano and micro-textures based on hot embossing.
  • Optical and device modelling
  • Characterization. ECN has a large and sophisticated infrastructure for characterization of materials, solar cells and modules. For characterization of functional layers, ECN has a broad range of optical and electrical characterization setups (Reflection/transmission, FTIR, Raman, FTPS, UV-reflection, temperature dependent dark conductivity, AFM, SEM). For characterization of solar cells ECN has setups for IV and spectral response measurements, and for characterization of modules, setups for flash-testing, outdoor measurements, light soaking facilities and climate chamber tests are available.
  • Cost of ownership and life cycle analysis of PV products and systems.

TUe - Eindhoven University of Technology

TUe - Eindhoven University of Technology

The Eindhoven University of Technology (TUe) is a research driven, design oriented university of technology at an international level, with the primary objective of providing young people with an academic education within the ‘engineering science & technology’ domain. Energy is one of the three strategic research areas defined by the TUe. Accordingly, the TUe has put a coherent scientific research and educational program into place on the chemistry, physics, and materials science of semiconducting molecular, polymer and hybrid materials that find application organic and polymer solar cells.

TUe’s main contribution to MUJULIMA

The main task of the TUe group will be the development of new polymer materials for application in solution processed multiple junction solar cells in WP3. The focus will be on further developing and exploring the family of diketopyrrolopyrroles that we proposed (Adv. Mater. 2008, JACS 2009, Adv. Mater, 2010, JACS 2011, JACS 2012, Adv. Mater 2013) in recent years. The use of amid functionalized fused ring structures and terpolymers will be further explored as a design criterion, towards achieving materials that cover the entire solar spectrum for use in single, double, and triple junction cells. The second main task in WP3 with the development of improved solution processable recombination layers. The TUe will further fabricate and characterize multiple junction cells. The TUe will further contribute to WP5 in testing the intrinsic stability of materials made and to WP2 in defining quantitative specifications for materials to obtained.

BUW - Bergische Universität Wuppertal

BUW - Bergische Universität Wuppertal

The Institute of Electronic Devices belongs to the Faculty of Electrical, Information and Media Engineering of Wuppertal University. The activities of the Institute of Electronic Devices reach from basic research on organic (opto-)electronic devices (OLEDs, organic solar cells, organic lasers), fundamental properties of organic/inorganic hybrid structures, to studies of device reliability. The work of the group has been and currently is involved in many publicly funded projects, e.g. on organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic photovoltaics, and oxide electronics.

The group has significant expertise in the fundamental physics and application of transition metal oxides (TMO), e.g. MoO3, WO3, V2O5, as p-type dopants for organic charge extraction materials and charge injection/extraction layers for OLEDs and organic solar cells (OSCs). These materials have successfully been incorporated as charge generation and recombination layers in multiple junction OLEDs and OSSs. We were the first to reveal the fundamental mechanisms of hole injection at the interface TMO/organic hole transport material. We have recently established first solution processes for some high-WF TMOs even at room temperature with an electronic structure comparable to that of vacuum deposited materials. These materials have been successfully used in conventional and inverted OSCs. A substantially improved cell stability compared to the commonly used PEDOT:PSS has been achieved. On the cathode side, we have developed a room-temperature solution process for SnOx to achieve single junction, inverted OSCs with superior stability.

BUW’s main contribution to MUJULIMA

WP3 Development and modelling of novel metal-oxide based charge extraction and recombination layers for multiple junction OSCs, solution processing of metal-oxides
WP4 Förster-type down conversion (UV  VIS) systems, metal-oxide interlayers for light management (scattering, trapping)

CEA-LITEN - Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives

CEA-LITEN - Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives

The “Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives“(CEA) is an internationally recognized research organization in the domains of energy, information and health technologies and defence. Its LITEN Institute (Lab. for Innovation in New Energy Technologies and Nanomaterials, 1000 people, 770 patents) is a major partner of fab to lab R&D with 350 collaborative research contracts running this year. The main topics of interest include (i) Technologies for electric vehicle transport (fuel cells, Li batteries, H2 production, biofuels, etc.), (ii) Solar energy for building (Si-based and advanced PV cells, electric and thermal systems, building integration, etc.) and (iii) High Technology industry (micro energy sources, organic electronic devices, etc.).

Two laboratories of Liten are involved in MUJULIMA:

  • The Laboratory for Energy Conversion Components (L2CE) has a strong experience in material development, including conventional and nanomaterial thin films and their integration in PV devices. L2CE has developed a structuring technology based on bead self-assembly for light engineering in inorganic solar cells. Optical 2D modelling using finite elements method was also implemented for that purpose. Both will be adapted to OPV solar cells.
  • The laboratory of PV modules technologies develops nanocomposite cells and modules, reaching world level efficiency. The laboratory is involved in the scaling up of these technologies using industrially compatible technologies (Inkjet and roll to roll printing). Stability studies is also an important theme of research with appropriate facilities enable to measure PV parameters in various accelerated climatic conditions and the development of home-made technics particularly in the field of gas barrier and encapsulation characterization.

CEA-LITEN’s main contribution to MUJULIMA:

In addition to the collective contribution to specifications, demonstration, dissemination and exploitation CEA’s technical inputs will be mostly focused on modelling and producing light scattering structures for enhanced light management (WP4) and accelerated ageing tests for lifetime assessment towards cell and module acceptance (WP5).

PCAS - Produits Chimiques Auxiliaires et de Synthese SA

PCAS - Produits Chimiques Auxiliaires et de Synthese SA

PCAS is a French group specialized in the design, development, manufacturing and marketing of fine chemicals (for markets human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, perfumery, cosmetics, and agrochemicals) and specialties (for electronic markets, photography, graphic arts, glass, industrial lubricants and additives). International supplier of high added value complex molecules, fine chemicals and custom synthesis services PCAS serves globally industrial customers since 1962.

PCAS has resources and facilities for research and development tailored to the industrialization of products or processes and production tools for manufacturing a wide range of products with high technological content in amounts ranging up several hundred tons.

PCAS’ main contribution to MUJULIMA

PCAS provides know-how and samples of reference materials together with chemical adjustment capacity for the benchmark of PA and up/down-converter materials (WP3 and WP4). PCAS does the scale-up of WP3 and WP4 best material candidates according to WP5 assessment. PCAS provides know-how of chemistry environment (environmental constraints, toxicity, regulation, etc.)


Eight19 - Transforming lives with flexible solar technology

Eight19 Ltd was spun-out from the University of Cambridge in 2010 in order to take to market world leading work on OPV. Eight19 is owned by a number of high profile industrial shareholders, including a £4.5M investment in 2010 from Solvay and the Carbon Trust and more recently further investment primarily from IP Group. The company’s mission is to develop the large scale-roll-to roll production technology for organic photovoltaic modules, and during the past 4 years it has established a significant infrastructure directed at commercial development of OPV based products. This infrastructural capability covers the full range running from efficient evaluation of materials and components for organic solar cells in sheet fed processes to the development of the roll-to-roll processes on a pre-production pilot machine. Eight19 sees its role as a developer of the roll-to-roll production technology for organic photovoltaic modules that will meet the demanding cost, stability and performance requirements of volume markets in off grid applications and large scale power generation. The deep knowledge of organic solar cell technology, roll-to-roll production processes and experience of roll to roll product development and commercialization enables Eight19’s team to deliver on the project goals.

Eight19’s main contribution to MUJULIMA

Eight19 in the consortium is the up-scaling partner and end-user. Eight19’s role in the consortium is the up-scaling of technology developed in the project, fabrication of demonstrators and specification of multiple routes to short term and medium term markets for OPV.


NEN - Stichting Nederlands Normalisatie-Instituut

NEN is the Dutch Standards Institute. It is legally set up as a non-profit foundation. NEN is the Dutch knowledge-centre for standards and rules. NEN promotes the use of (inter) national standards using courses, information events, publications and other projects. With a consultancy organisation with €23M turnover and 275 employees (over 40% with a university degree), NEN supports over 1400 standardisation committees with 7000 members. Although accreditation of products and systems is not related to corporate business, many of their employees have experience in that area.

NEN is the only institute in the Netherlands that may officially publish standards. As such it is the Dutch representing member in international standardisation organisations such as ISO, IEC, CEN and CENELEC. NEN has four major departments dealing with building, health and consumer, electronics and industrial standards. NEN has a database of 2000 national contacts, over 6000 European and almost 10,000 international standards.

NEN is a full member of CENELEC/TC 82.

NEN has a broad experience in holding secretariats of CEN/CENELEC Technical Committees and Working Groups.

NEN’s main contribution to MUJULIMA

Within this project, NEN is responsible for communication with CEN/CENELEC on progress of standardisation, for following the CEN rules and procedures, for document versions of the standards (including CWA, formal enquiry stage and formal vote stage) and for planning and organising meetings of the committees and working groups that should prepare draft standards MUJULIMA. To accomplish the work, NEN will coordinate with the partners for this drafting process.


Nanograde - Nanograde

Nanograde Ltd. was founded in 2008 as a spin-off company from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH). Nanograde currently has 9 employees and is a leader in the development of specialty nanoparticles and dispersions for opto-electronic applications. Nanograde’s material inventions enable the fabrication of high quality optical and electronic films by industrial printing and coating techniques. Nanograde’s unique technology and knowhow allows fast proof-of-concepts, focused product developments and thus speeds up the overall product development.

Nanograde was first to develop a surfactant-free inorganic charge transport layer based on inorganic WOx, ZnO and Al:ZnO for OPV and OLED devices. The curing temperature as low as 80°C. Based on the printable inorganic ink, adaptations and optimization of the physical properties (e.g. conductivity) can be made in a straight-forward way.

Nanograde Ltd. is part of the Organic and Printed electronics association (OE-A) and has applied for several materials patents for the application in organic photovoltaics.

Nanograde’s main contribution to MUJULIMA

Nanograde will adapt and upscale charge extraction materials, light-management materials and support demonstrator activities (WP2, WP3, WP4, WP6)

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European Research and Innovation

This project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no 604148

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